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CRVS terms & definitions

This glossary of civil registration and vital statistics systems provides terms and definitions used globally in the CRVS community of practice. To make the most of its offerings, follow these simple steps:

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Civil registration system

A civil registration system includes the institutional, legal, and technical norms established by government to conduct civil registration in a technical, sound, coordinated, and standardized manner throughout the country, taking into account cultural and social circumstances particular to the country.

Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

  • Administration of civil registration records

    The framework for consistent application of standards and procedures, qualified human resources, adequate infrastructure, and sufficient financial resources for its operation.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Certificate amendment

      A correction to perceivable material mistakes or factual errors. This can only be done if the record is correspondingly modified.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Civil registration forms

      The paper or electronic forms on which biographic information pertaining to the vital event are recorded. (See definition of vital event).

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Correction of errors

      A change in a vital record or legal act whereby an error is corrected or amended and saved by the relevant authority.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Deduplication of records

      Assurance through comparison of biographic details that no person has been enrolled in the civil registry more than once.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Delayed registration

      The registration of a civil or vital event that occurs after the prescribed period indicated in existing laws, rules, or regulations (including any grace period, if one is specified). In most countries, late registration is the registration of a vital event after the prescribed time period, but within a specified grace period, usually one year or more after the vital event has occurred.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Digital registration

      The recording of information related to identity that is binary, and not text-based.

      Source: Adapted from National Institute of Standards and Technology

    • Digital signature

      An asymmetric dual-key operation based on binary numbers (ones and zeros) to store and process data. A private key is used to digitally sign an electronic document and a public key is used to verify the signature. Digital signatures provide authentication and integrity protection, and have the same validity and legal effects as a handwritten signature.

      Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology

    • Electronic registration

      A record that is created electronically, and is not paper-based.

      Source: Adapted from Techtarget.com

    • Electronic signature

      Usually a scanned image of a signature, such as a signature on pad.

      Source: Adapted from National Institute of Standards and Technology

    • Issuance of certificates

      The civil registrar issues official documents that attest to the occurrence of a vital event.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Late registration

      The registration of a vital event after the legally-specified time established in existing laws, rules, or regulations, but within a specified grace period, if one has been defined.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Marginal note

      A note written at the margin of a main public record, especially within the civil register, that contains modifications or corrections of legal information.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Marginal notes book

      A separate book compiled in parallel with the birth register that contains annotations or updated information on birth registration. Only a few countries have adopted the use of marginal notes books.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Mobile registration

      The use of mobile telephones and technology to register births.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Quality of data

      The veracity, integrity, and timeliness of recorded biographical data relating to a vital event.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Record correction

      A change in a vital record or legal act whereby an error is corrected or amended, and saved by the relevant authority.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Record management security

      Maintaining the integrity of the dataset and personal records in a civil register, including protection against physical, cyber, network, and natural or unnatural disasters.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Statutory registration timeframe

      The legally-defined time limits for the registration of a vital event with the relevant authority.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Timeliness of registration

      The difference between the date of the occurrence of a civil or vital event and the date of its registration, when compared with the interval specified by legislation.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Barriers and determinants for late or non registration

    Barriers to timely and universal registration of vital events include cultural barriers such as language, ethnicity, customs, mother's education, and lack of understanding of the importance of having an identity credential. Other barriers include discrimination toward ethnic groups, single mothers, young mothers, minority language groups, distance to registration offices, weak institutional and administrative capacity of the registration offices in remote areas, and socio-economic factors such as direct and indirect costs of registration, and payment for certificates.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Birth registration

    The process by which a child's birth and biographical information, such as names of parent(s) and place and time of birth, are recorded in the civil register by the government authority. It provides the first legal recognition of the child and is generally required for the child to obtain a birth certificate and, as a result, any other legal documents and rights.

    Source: United Nations Children's Fund

    • Adoption notification

      Notice of a formalized adoption by an authorized individual, such as a parent or a relative, or by institutions such as the court.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Birth notification

      Notice of the occurrence of a birth by an authorized individual such as a parent or a relative, or by institutions such as health authorities.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Certificate of live birth

      A certificate issued by a medical professional confirming a live birth.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Filiation notification

      Notice of a formalized filiation, or recognition of parental lineage, by an authorized individual such as a parent or a relative, or institutions such as the court.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Informant

      An individual whose legally-designated responsibility is to report the occurrence of a vital event to the local registrar and to provide all the information and characteristics related to the event. On the basis of such a report, the local registrar may legally register the event.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Parent

      A mother or father.

      Source: Merriam-Webster online Dictionary

    • Paternity determination

      Biological determination of the fact of being the true father of a child. Blood or DNA analysis are commonly used.

      Source: Adapted from the Canadian Children's Rights Council

    • Timeframe for notification of births

      The legally-defined time limits for the registration of a vital event with the relevant authority.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

  • Civil register outputs

    The different certificates issued by the civil register. Civil registration is carried out primarily for the value of the legal documents that confirm the individual's civil status as provided by law.

    Source: Adapted from Wikipedia

    • Birth certificate

      An original document or certified extract, usually issued by a government authority, stating when and where a person was born and usually identifying one or both parents, as per the legal requirements of each country.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Certified copy

      A photocopy of a document, judgement, or record that is signed and attested to as an accurate and complete reproduction of the original document by a public official in whose custody the original has been placed for safekeeping.

      Source: Legal Dictionary

    • Death certificate

      An original document or certified extract, usually issued by the civil registry, stating when and where a person died, as per the legal requirements of each country.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Digital certificate

      An electronic document used to prove ownership of a public key. The certificate includes information about the key, information about its owner’s identity, and the digital signature of the certification authority that has verified the certificate’s contents are correct. 

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Divorce certificate

      An original document or certified extract, usually issued by a government authority, stating when and where two people were divorced, as per the legal requirements of each country.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Electronic certificate

      Representation of an official civil registry certificate that is machine-readable and may include a barcode.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank

    • Family book

      The registered acts pertaining to civil status and vital records for the members of a family unit. It is issued upon marriage or to unwed mothers who give birth. Family books are common in Continental European and Asian countries, such as Germany (Familienbuch), France, Spain, Russia (Propiska), China (Hukou), Japan (Koseki), and North and South Korea (Hoju), as well as in some African countries, such as Madagascar and Niger.

      Source: Adapted from Wikipedia

    • Marriage certificate

      An original document or certified extract, usually issued by a government authority, that states when and where two people were married, as per the legal requirements of each country. The document verifies the legal union of a couple, which necessarily and simultaneously applies to both people. It is the only certificate which the participants declare and sign personally.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Security features on certificates

      Stamps, rubber stamps, barcodes, paper with embedded threads and watermarks, photos of the registrant, or their signatures.

      Source: Adapted from US Government Publishing Office

  • Civil register records

    Verified and compiled records of civil events that have occurred and been registered in a jurisdiction.

    Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank

    • Adoption record

      The creation of a record where all rights and responsibilities are transferred from the biological parent or parents to the adoptive parent or parents. The record will contain the adoptee's new unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable), date and place of adoption, biographical information on the adopting parents and their UINs, if applicable. The date of registration is incorporated into the civil register.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Birth record

      The initial record in the civil register after a birth has occurred that contains the unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable), biographical information of the individual, along with date and place of birth, date of registration, name(s), and UIN(s), if applicable, of parent(s).

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Death record

      The record of a deceased person that contains the person's unique identity number (or UIN, if issued), date and place of death, date of registration, cause of death if known, and Certifier or certifying authority of the vital event.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Divorce record

      The record of a formalized divorce in the civil registry that contains the unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable) of the two individuals who are divorcing, as well as the date and place of divorce, date of registration, type of divorce (civil or religious), and name changes that may take place after the divorce.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Filiation record

      The rectification of a record in the civil registry of recognition of parenthood. The record will contain the date and place of recognition, date of registration, reason for recognition (voluntary or compulsory), type of recognition (maternity or paternity), and the recognizing parent's biographical information and unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable).

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Marriage record

      The record of a marriage in the civil registry that contains the unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable) of the two individuals who have contracted the marriage, as well as date and place of marriage, date of registration, type of marriage (civil or religious), occupation of the two individuals, and in some cases, their literacy status or educational attainment.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

  • Civil registration

    The continuous, permanent, compulsory, and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events (live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages, and divorces) and other civil status events pertaining to the population as provided by decree, law, or regulation, in accordance with the legal requirements in each country. Civil registration is an essential source of vital statistics.

    Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Institutional arrangement

      A civil registry generally falls under the Ministry of Justice or Interior according to national legislation. Other institutions that may house the civil registry include the Ministry of Health or the institution responsible for elections. In some cases, the civil registry is autonomous.

      Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

    • All nations in the world have laws regulating the role and responsibilities of the civil register.

      Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

    • Purpose

      To establish the legal identity of individuals and issue certificates that attest to their vital status.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank

  • Civil registration organization

    The functional mode in which the civil registry is set up to fulfill its obligations, functions, and mandates in a coordinated manner.

    Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Centralized functions

      Functions for a civil registry that include storage of all records (main register), deduplication of records, internal controls such as audit functions, ICT operations, human resources and staffing, legal research, and resolution.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Centralized structures

      A centralized civil registry structure exists when policy decisions and standardization of both administrative and registration procedures are determined at the top level.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Decentralized functions

      Civil registry functions that include enrollment procedures, verification of supporting documents for the recording of a vital event, storage of records, correction of substantiated errors, and reporting to the central civil register.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Decentralized structures

      The granting of a certain degree of autonomy to specialized agents acting on behalf of the central registry that supervises the agent's activities.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Internal controls

      The audits that must be carried out with a certain frequency to guarantee the integrity and security of records in the register. These include financial, administrative, systems and procedures, efficiency and ICT, and network audits.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Registration campaigns

      Geographically-focused efforts to incentivize individuals or families who do not have the official identity documents or credentials required to enroll in the civil register. These campaigns can be carried out in parallel with school enrollment at the beginning of the academic year, vaccination campaigns, or as part of other government initiatives such as social protection programs.

      Source: United Nations Children's Fund

    • Report mechanisms

      The media in which the civil register records are reported to the next hierarchical level. The medium can be paper, USB, floppy disc, microfilm, or electronic transfer.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Report procedures

      The structures that are in place for collecting and distributing information on vital events to the defined hierarchical level. Depending on the national context, it can be at the municipal, district, state, or national level. For a flat structure, it can be from the municipal or hospital level directly to the national civil register.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Children's Fund

  • Civil registration organizational roles

    Professional roles important for the functioning of a civil registration system. Specific titles, roles, and responsibilities are dictated by laws and operating procedures that may differ across countries. 

    Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

    • Civil servant

      A person employed in the public sector by a government department or agency.

      Source: Wikipedia

    • Local registrar

      Municipal clerks appointed by a mayor. Their pay scales are governed by the local government's structure.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Registrar

      An official responsible for keeping a register or official records and evaluating the supporting documentation presented for the recording of a vital event.

      Source: Merriam-Webster online Dictionary

    • Registrar General

      The head of the civil registry in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and many other Commonwealth nations.

      Source: Wikipedia

    • Adoption

      A two-step judicial process in conformance with state statutory provisions in which the legal obligations and rights of a child toward the biological parents are terminated, and new rights and obligations are created between the child and the adoptive parents.

      Source: Legal Dictionary

    • Filiation

      Family relationship between relatives, regardless of degree, in the strictest connotation. The relationship of rights that exists between parent and child.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Identity

      A unique set of features and characteristics that individualize a person, including the name and other biographical data.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Legal civil status obtained through civil registration at birth and civil identification of unique attributes, such as a personal identification number and biometrics, that recognizes the individual as a subject of law and protection of the state.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Legitimation

      A post-birth formalization of the legal relationship between a parent and a child, placing a child born out of wedlock in the same legal position as a child born in wedlock.

      Source: United Sates Citizenship and Immigration Services

    • Marriage in extremis

      A marriage held when one party is about to die, which by law allows the necessary procedures to be accelerated.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Parental authority

      The duties and responsibilities of parents toward the persons and goods of the dependent children.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Paternity determination

      The process of establishing the biological father of a child as the legal father. This can be done by blood test, or by DNA testing of the mother, father, and child.

      Source: Adapted from Wikipedia

    • Personal identity number

      A unique alphanumeric code or password used to authenticate an identity and provide access to a system.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Privacy protection

      The set of privacy motivated laws, policies, and procedures that aim to minimize intrusion into respondents’ privacy caused by the collection, storage, and dissemination of personal data.

      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Recognition (of extramarital children)

      A post-birth formalization of the legal relationship between a parent and a child, placing a child born out of wedlock in the same legal position as a child born in wedlock.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Timeframe for notification of births

      The number of days between the occurrence of the birth and the recording of the birth. This may vary based on legislation, regulations, or customs.

      Source: World Bank Group

    • Timeframe for notification of deaths

      Timeframe for notification of death may vary based on legislation, regulations, or customs. However, an official death certificate is required in most jurisdictions in order for a burial/funeral to take place.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Unique identity number (UIN)

      An attribute in the form of a unique number used to identify individuals upon their inscription in the civil registration or civil identification system.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Vital event

      A live birth, death, fetal death, marriage, divorce, adoption, legitimation, recognition of parenthood, annulment of marriage, or legal separation.

      Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

  • Population register

    A government data collection system in which the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of all or part of the population are continuously recorded. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Israel are among the countries that maintain universal registers for demographic purposes, recording vital events (birth, marriage, moves, and death) so that up-to-date information on the whole population is readily available.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Registration of deaths

    The official recording of the death of person through a public administrative process.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Coroner

      A medical legal officer who determines the cause of death in cases of unnatural death. State laws, regulations, and customs vary significantly regarding which cases must be investigated by a coroner, or medical legal officer.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization

    • Death notification

      A death can be notified to the civil registry by anyone who was present at the death, a relative who was present during the person’s final period of illness, the owner or occupier of the part of the building where the death took place (if they were aware of the death), or personnel from the hospital or hospice where the death occurred.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Funeral home

      An establishment with facilities for the preparation of the dead for burial or cremation, for the viewing of the body, and for funerals. The funeral home or director must be in possession of the official death certificate before the burial/funeral can take place.

      Source: Merriam-Webster online Dictionary

    • Informant

      For deaths, an informant can be anyone who was present at the death: a relative who was present during the person’s final period of illness, the owner or occupier of the part of the building where the death took place (if they were aware of the death), or personnel from the hospital or hospice where the death occurred.

      Source: Adapted from Marie Curie Charity Organization

    • Medical examiner

      A medical legal officer who determines the cause of death in cases of unnatural death. State laws, regulations, and customs vary significantly regarding which cases must be investigated by a medical legal officer, or medical examiner.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization

    • A medical legal officer who determines the cause of death in cases of unnatural death. State laws, regulations, and customs vary significantly regarding which cases must be investigated by a medical legal officer.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Timeframe for notification of deaths

      The time within which the death certificate must be filed with the registrar.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Registration of marriage and divorce

    The official recording of the marriage or divorce of two persons through a public administrative process.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Annulment

      The invalidation or voiding of a legal marriage by a competent authority, according to the laws of the country, thus conferring on the parties the status of never having been married to each other.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Civil marriage

      A wedding celebrated before a competent officer of the law.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Civil union

      A non-religious, state-sanctioned partnership, similar to marriage.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • The expression of a positive will, explicitly or implicitly, which is one of the fundamental elements of certain legal acts.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Divorce

      The legal dissolution of a marriage. It is a separation of husband and wife that confers on the parties the right to remarry under civil, religious, and/or other provisions in accordance with the laws of the country.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Divorce record

      The record of a formalized divorce in the civil registry that contains the unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable) of the two individuals who are divorcing, as well as date and place of divorce, date of registration, type of divorce (civil or religious), and name changes that may take place after the divorce.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Judicial separation

      The disunion of married persons, without conferring on the parties the right to remarriage, according to the laws of a country. It is the same as a legal separation.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Marriage record

      The record of a marriage in the civil registry that contains the unique identity number (or UIN, if applicable) of the two individuals who have contracted the marriage, as well as the date and place of marriage, date of registration, type of marriage (civil or religious), occupation of the two individuals, and in some cases, their literacy status or educational attainment.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Religious marriage

      The union of two people celebrated according to religious practices.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Registration of vital events abroad

    When a vital event (live birth, death, fetal death, marriage, and divorce) and other civil status events take place outside of the person's country of citizenship, the event should be reported to the relevant consulate in accordance with the legal requirements for each country. The resulting vital statistics of the event are usually recorded in the country where the event takes place.

    Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

  • Socio-cultural aspects of civil registration

    The particular cultural and social circumstances of a population or a country that may influence a person's choice to seeks registration of civil events.

Common elements

A CRVS system represents the inter-operability of three separate systems: civil registration, health information, and vital statistics. Individually, the functionality and functioning of the three systems depend on a series of common elements that include, but are not limited to: training, assessments and evaluations, identity management, data security and privacy, information and communications technology, etc.

Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

  • Communication relevant to CRVS

    Communication and education through advocacy is key to achieving community participation and demand creation from individuals, populations, and the public and private sectors toward attaining universal registration and improving the quality of vital statistics.

    Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

  • Financial considerations for CRVS systems

    Analysis of assets, liabilities, budgetary planning, cash flow aspects and investment needs for maintaining and sustaining CRVS services.

    Source: Statistics Norway

  • Genealogy

    A line of descent traced continuously from an ancestor.

    Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Family tree

      A diagram showing the relationship between people in several generations of a family.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

  • Identity

    A unique set of features and characteristics that individualize a person, including name and other biographical data.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Cultural identity

      The identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a person's self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, locality, or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture.

      Source: Adapted from Wikipedia

    • Digital identity

      A set of features that individualize a person in a computer-based system. It is a binary representation of a civil registration record.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Electronic identity

      The set of data or attributes that enables individuals to prove electronically who they are in order to access services or reserved information. It is a visual representation of a civil registration record that is readable by scanners.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Ethnic identity

      A shared sense of identity, tradition, solidarity, and belonging to a particular ethnic group.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Gender identity

      A person’s innate, deeply-felt psychological identification as a man, woman, or transgender person. This may or may not correspond to the sex assigned to them at birth (e.g., the sex listed on their birth certificate).

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Legal civil status obtained through civil registration at birth and civil identification of unique attributes, such as a personal identification number and biometrics, that recognizes the individual as a subject of law and protection of the state.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • National identity

      The human, demographic, cultural, and behavioral features of a nation perpetuated through rites and symbols.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Social identity

      The identity derived from the sense of belonging to a given group.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Identity management

    The combination of systems, rules, and procedures that are defined between an individual and organizations regarding the entitlement, use, and protection of personal information. They serve to authenticate individual identities and provide authorization and privileges within or across systems and enterprise boundaries.

    Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Identity management and gender

    Aspects that address gender-related issues in the context of civil registration, particularly with respect to leveling the field for timely registration of children of both sexes. This also includes aspects that address inequalities with respect to issuance and holding of identity documents.

    Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

  • Identity management system and information technology

    Information and communication technology considerations relative to an identity management system.

    Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

    • Application Programming Interface (API)

      A set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components.

      Source: Adapted from Wikipedia

    • Back up systems

      Copies of files, replacement equipment, or alternative procedures in case of emergencies caused by total or partial failure of a computer system. 

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Cyber security

      The ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyber attacks. Cyber attacks are defined as the targeting of an enterprise's use of cyberspace for the purpose of disrupting, disabling, destroying, or maliciously controlling a computing environment or infrastructure, destroying the integrity of the data, or stealing controlled information.

      Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology

    • Data privacy

      The status accorded to data which has been agreed upon between the person or organization furnishing the data and the organization receiving it. It describes the degree of protection which will be provided, and can be loosely defined as the appropriate use of data. Privacy is a concept that applies to data subjects, while confidentiality applies to data.

      Source: Adapted from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Digital certificates

      A digital form of identification, much like a passport or driver's licence. A digital certificate is a digital credential that provides information about the identity of an entity, as well as other supporting information. It is issued by an authority, referred to as a certification authority (CA), who guarantees the validity of the information in the certificate. A digital certificate is only valid for a specific period of time.

      Source: Adapted from Microsoft

    • ICT challenges

      Issues that can compromise an information and communications technology (ICT) system. 

      Source: Adapted from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Identity authentication

      The process of establishing confidence in the truth of a claim, which could be any declarative statement. It is also defined as the process by which a user conveys data into a system to be recognized and able to interact with the system. In biometrics, identity authentication is sometimes used as a generic synonym for certification.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Immigration

      The process of moving from one country to another to take up permanent residence.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Statelessness

      The condition of not being considered a national by any state under the operation of its laws.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

  • Records management

    The field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use, and disposition of records. This includes the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records.

    Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

    • Archives

      A collection of historical documents or records providing information about a place, institution, or group of people.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Book register

      Compiled and indexed registration books of vital events that have occurred usually within a calendar year. The books for the different vital events may be colour-coded for easier handling.

      Source: Adapted from Smithsonian Institution Archives and Inter-American Development Bank

    • Card register

      Compiled, indexed paper records of vital events that have occurred and have been recorded.

      Source: Adapted from Smithsonian Institution Archives and Inter-American Development Bank

    • Digital preservation

      The task of ensuring that digital records are accessible in the future.

      Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

    • Digitize records

      The act of transforming any kind of information into binary data that is readable by computers.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Electronic records

      Electronically stored compiled records of vital events that have occurred and have been recorded, including date, time, place, and signature of when the recording took place.

      Source: Adapted from Inter-American Development Bank

    • Protection of archives (physical records)

      Archives, especially paper-based archives, may be at risk of theft, vandalism, environmental deterioration, pests, natural, and unnatural disasters. Protection of historical data, as well as protection of personal information, require special attention.

      Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

    • Records preservation management

      The process of evaluating risks, conducting assessments, and developing policies to create and maintain a long-term preservation plan of records.

      Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

    • Records processing

      The act of arranging and describing the papers of an individual or family, or the records of an organization.

      Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

Health information system

Any system that captures, stores, manages, or transmits information related to the health of individuals or the activities of organizations that work within the health sector. This definition incorporates things such as district level routine information systems, disease surveillance systems, laboratory information systems, hospital patient administration systems (PAS), and human resource management information systems (HRMIS).

Source: Adapted from World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  • Health information systems

    Any system that captures, stores, manages, or transmits information related to the health of individuals or the activities of organizations that work within the health sector. This definition incorporates things such as district level routine information systems, disease surveillance systems, laboratory information systems, hospital patient administration systems (PAS), and human resource management information systems (HRMIS).

    Source: Adapted from World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Birth

      The emergence of a baby from the body of its mother and the start of life as a physically separate being.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Birth attendant

      The person who assists the mother in giving birth, such as a physician, midwife, nurse, other paramedical person, or lay person.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Birth history

      A list of all live births to a given woman, or all births prior to a specified date, providing information on the date of birth and the sex of the child/children. When the birth history includes births prior to a specified date, the list will usually also include information on whether each child born is surviving as of that date and, if not, the date of death and/or age at death. Birth histories are sometimes partial, limited to births occurring during a particular time period.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Birth order

      The numerical order of a child in relation to all previous pregnancies of the mother.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Certificate of live birth

      A certificate issued by a medical professional attesting to the live birth of a child.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization

    • Health system assessment

      USAID's Health System Assessment Approach (HSAA) has been widely used in the developing world to diagnose the performance of health systems and to capture system-wide information to better inform health sector planning.

      Source: United States Agency for International Development

    • Institutional arrangement

      Public health strategies, operations, and health information systems are the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Live birth

      The result of the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, which after separation breathes or shows other evidence of life (such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles), whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions, and respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Medical death certificate

      Medical certificate of cause of death issued by a government employed medical officer.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Multiple births

      The birth of more than one baby from a single pregnancy.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Multiple pregnancy

      A pregnancy in which more than one fetus develops.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Ministries of Health are governed by laws and regulations for the purpose of strengthening public health capacities and preventing the deterioration of health conditions. Public health focuses on the entire spectrum of health and wellbeing, not only the eradication of particular diseases. Public health services also include the provision of personal services to individuals, such as vaccinations, behavioural counselling, or health advice. Public health systems depend on efficient health information systems, both for public awareness and public sector planning purposes.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Purpose

      A health information system provides public health planning and service delivery.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • Quality of health information data

      Processes that ensure the integrity of an organization's data during collection, application (including aggregation), warehousing, and analysis.

      Source: Adapted from American Health Information Management Association

    • Report procedures

      Report methods that achieve meaningful electronic transfer of relevant vital event health information to the statistical agency.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

Vital statistics system

The total process of collecting information by civil registration or enumeration on the frequency of specified and defined vital events, as well as the relevant characteristics of the events and the individuals concerned. This same process also includes compiling, processing, analyzing, evaluating, presenting, and disseminating these data in statistical form.

Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

  • Sources of vital statistical data

    The different sources and methodologies that are used and applied to create vital statistics.

    Source: World Health Organization

    • Census

      The total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, and publishing or otherwise disseminating statistical data pertaining, at a specified time, to all living quarters and occupants in a country or in a well-delimited part of a country.

      Source: Inter-American-Development Bank

    • Civil register

      Continuous, permanent, compulsory, and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events and other civil status events pertaining to the population, in accordance with the legal requirements in each country. Civil registration is an essential source of vital statistics, providing data for population estimates, health statistics, and demographic forecasts.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Demographic and health survey (DHS)

      Nationally-representative household surveys that provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, and nutrition.

      Source: United States Agency for International Development

    • Demographic surveillance system

      A longitudinal of all demographic events, including cause of death via verbal autopsy, in a geographically defined population. Such systems are usually established with the primary purpose of health and development intervention research.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Enumeration

      Collection of statistical data from the primary source, or the means by which the presence of individuals in a household or other group is recorded. Enumeration is normally used in reference to a census or survey. It is anonymous and does not provide any direct benefit to the individual.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Health authorities

      Health authorities collect and compile statistical data pertinent to vital events that take place in health facilities.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization

    • Hospital records

      Records that contain information on births and causes of death as verified by the physician who issues the certificate.

      Source: Adapted from World Health Organization

    • Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)

      The Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is an international household survey program developed by UNICEF. MICS is designed to collect statistically sound, internationally comparable estimates of about 130 indicators to assess the situation of children, women, and men in the areas of health, education, and child protection among others.

      Source: United Nations Children's Fund

    • Population register

      An individualized data system that provides continuous recording, and/or coordinated linkage of selected information pertaining to each member of the resident population of a country to determine up-to-date information on the size and characteristics of that population at selected time intervals.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Sample registration system

      The sample registration system in India is based on a dual record system. The field investigation under a sample registration system consists of the continuous enumeration of births and deaths in a sample of villages/urban blocks by a resident part-time enumerator and an independent, semi-annual retrospective survey by a full-time supervisor. This system is also used in China.

      Source: Census India

    • Surveys

      A survey is an investigation about the characteristics of a given population by collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics through the systematic use of statistical methodology.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

  • Vital statistics

    The collection, processing, and analysis of vital events data drawn from all possible sources of vital events, such as civil registry and health information systems, for the purpose of disseminating the information in statistical form.

    Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Age adjustment

      Using the direct method, the application of observed age-specific rates to a standard age distribution to eliminate differences in crude rates in populations of interest that result from differences in the populations’ age distributions.

      Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

    • Age specific fertility rate

      The total births and population are restricted to single five-year age groups and takes into account the age-specific birth rates of women between the ages of 10 and 49 using five-year age groups (10-14, 15-19, 20-24, etc.).

      Source: Adapted from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • All cause mortality

      All of the deaths that occur in a population, regardless of the cause. All cause mortality is measured in clinical trials and used as an indicator of the safety or hazard of an intervention.

      Source: Medical online dictionary

    • Birth history

      A list of all live births to a given woman, or all births prior to a specified date, providing information on the date of birth and the sex of the child/children. When the birth history includes births prior to a specified date, the list will usually also include information on whether each child born is surviving as of that date and, if not, the date of death and/or age at death. Birth histories are sometimes limited to births occurring during a particular time period.

      Source: Inter-American-Development Bank

    • Birth order

      The numerical order of a child in relation to all of the mother's previous pregnancies.

      Source: Inter-American-Development Bank

    • Birth rate, crude

      The number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Cause-specific mortality rate

      The mortality rate from a specified cause for a population. The numerator is the number of deaths attributed to a specific cause during a specified time interval and the denominator is the size of the population at the midpoint of the time interval.

      Source: Medical online dictionary

    • Causes of death

      All diseases, morbid conditions, or injuries that either resulted in or contributed to death, and the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced any such injuries. Symptoms or modes of dying, such as heart failure or asthenia, are not considered to be causes of death for statistical purposes.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Child mortality

      Child mortality, also known as under-5 mortality or child death, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five, or between the age of one month to four years, depending on the definition.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Coding

      The technical procedure for converting verbal information into numbers or other symbols that can be more easily counted and tabulated.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Coding error

      The assignment of an incorrect code to a survey response. Systematic errors are errors reported consistently over time and/or between responding units (generally undetectable by editing), and are caused either by the consistent misunderstanding of a question on the survey questionnaire during the collection of data, or by consistent misinterpretation of certain answers in the course of coding. Systematic errors do not lead necessarily to validity or consistency errors but always seriously compromise statistical results.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Comparability of data

      Statistics for a given characteristic have the greatest usefulness when they enable reliable comparisons of values taken by the characteristic across space and time. The comparability component stresses the comparison of the same statistics between countries in order to evaluate the meaning of aggregated statistics at the European level.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Completeness

      The extent to which all statistics that are needed are available. It is usually described as a measure of the amount of available data from a statistical system compared to the amount that was expected to be obtained.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Confidence estimations

      The estimation of a population parameter by specifying a range of values bounded by an upper and a lower limit, within which the true value is asserted to lie. It is distinct from point estimation, which assigns a single value to the true value of the parameter. The unknown value of the population parameter is presumed to lie within the specified interval either on a stated proportion of occasions, under conditions of repeated sampling, or in some other probabilistic sense.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Confidence interval

      An interval with a known and controlled probability (generally 95% or 99%) of containing the true value.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Content completeness

      Ensuring that the distributions corresponding to different values of the parameters are distinct in a statistics set.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Contributing cause of death

      A significant condition that unfavourably influences the course of the morbid process and thus contributes to the fatal outcome, but which is not related to the disease or condition directly causing death.

      Source: Adapted from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Coverage

      The extent to which the real, observed population matches the ideal or normative population within a geographical area, such as national coverage. An understanding of coverage is required to facilitate the comparison of data. Coverage issues are often explained through the use of tables showing linkages (e.g. part or full correspondence), and can also be used to explain the ratio of coverage.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division and Eurostat

    • Cross-tabulation

      A multi-dimensional table that records the number of respondents who have the specific characteristics described in the cells of the table. Cross-tabulation tables provide a wealth of information about the relationship between the variables. Cross-tabulation analysis, also known as contingency table analysis, is most often used to analyze categorical (nominal measurement scale) data.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Crude death rate

      The number of deaths occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Data accuracy

      The closeness between the estimated value and the (unknown) true value.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Data analysis

      Methodological research to improve the quality, usefulness, and usability of data.

      Source: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine

    • Data editing

      Activity aimed at detecting and correcting errors (logical inconsistencies) in data.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Data fit for purpose/Integrity of data

      Values and related practices that maintain confidence in the eyes of users in the agency producing statistics, and ultimately in the statistical product.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Data utility

      The value of a given data release as an analytical resource, including the data’s analytical completeness and its analytical validity. Disclosure control methods usually have an adverse effect on data utility. Ideally, the goal of any disclosure control regime should be to maximize data utility and minimize disclosure risk. In practice, disclosure control decisions are a trade-off between utility and disclosure risk.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Death rate

      The number of deaths in a given period divided by the population exposed to risk of death in that period.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Death record

      The record of a deceased person that contains the person's unique identity number (or UIN, if issued), date and place of death, date of registration, cause of death, if known, and the Certifier or certifying authority of the vital event.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Disease prevalence

      A statistical concept referring to the number of cases of a disease present in a particular population at a given time. Prevalence differs from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases that develop in a given period of time.

      Source: National Institutes of Health

    • Fertility rate

      The total number of live births for a specific area and time period divided by the female population, ages 15-44, for that same area and time, multiplied by 1,000.

      Source: Adapted from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Human mortality database

      A database that was created to provide detailed mortality and population data to researchers, students, journalists, policy analysts, and others interested in the history of human longevity.

      Source: The Human Mortality Database

    • ICD-10

      The tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs, and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Immediate cause of death

      Typically, the disease or injury directly leading to death.

      Source: National Institutes of Health

    • Infant mortality

      Deaths for children under one year of age occurring among the live births.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Infant mortality rate

      The number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Institutional arrangement

      Vital statistics tend to be located within national, independent institutions responsible for collecting, producing, and publishing official statistics related to the economy, population, and society at national, regional, and local levels. In some countries, the statistical agency falls under a particular ministry, such as economy or planning.

      Source: International Statistical Institute

    • International Classification of Diseases (ICD)

      A health care classification system that provides a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code up to six characters long. The International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) is a system used by physicians and other healthcare providers to classify and code all diagnoses, symptoms, and procedures recorded in conjunction with hospital care and death. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO). ICD-11 is under preparation and publication is planned for 2018.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Life expectancy at birth

      The average number of years that a newborn is expected to live if current mortality rates continue to apply.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Life table

      A table of statistics relating to life expectancy and mortality for a given category of people.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Live birth

      The result of the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, which after separation breathes or shows other evidence of life (such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles), whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions, and respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps.

      Source: Inter-American Development Bank

    • Live birth rate

      The number of births actually occurring in an area in a given time period, divided by the population of the area as estimated at the middle of the particular time period. The rate is usually expressed in terms of “per 1,000 of population.”

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division and United Nations Children's Fund

    • Margin of error

      The maximum expected difference between the true population parameter and a sample estimate of that parameter. To be meaningful, the margin of error should be qualified by a probability statement (often expressed in the form of a confidence level).

      Source: Statistics online dictionary

    • Maternal mortality

      Deaths from puerperal causes (during childbirth or the period immediately following) occurring among the female population.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Maternal mortality rate

      The number of deaths from puerperal causes (during childbirth or in the period immediately following) occurring among the female population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 100,000 live births occurring among the population of the given geographical area during the same year.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Metadata

      A set of data that describes and gives information about other data.

      Source: Oxford online Dictionaries

    • Methodology for correction of errors

      Provide users with accurate and quality statistical data and formation by correcting errors in published statistical data.

      Source: Statistics online dictionary

    • Mortality

      The proportion of deaths to population in a given time or place.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division and Eurostat

    • Mortality database

      The compilation of mortality data by age, sex, and cause of death, as reported annually.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Mortality rate

      The occurrence of deaths over a specific interval in time, representing the number of deaths in a given period divided by the population exposed to risk of death in that period.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Mortality tabulations

      Comparison of the estimated total number of deaths in a country with the absolute number of registered deaths and the causes of death during a given period.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Multiple pregnancy

      A pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb.

      Source: Medical online dictionary

    • Natality tabulations

      Comparison of the estimated total number of births in a country with the absolute number of registered births during a given period.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Countries have laws and regulations governing the administration and operation of statistical agencies.

      Source: Centre of Excellence for CRVS Systems

    • Neo-natal mortality

      Infant death during the first 28 days after live birth.

      Source: Medical online dictionary

    • Neo-natal mortality rate

      The number of deaths during the first 28 completed days of life occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births.

      Source: Medical online dictionary

    • Place of occurrence

      The civil subdivision of a country (district, county, municipality, province, department, state) in which a live birth or death, fetal death, marriage, or divorce takes place.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Place of residence

      The civil subdivision of a country (district, county, municipality, province, department, state) in which the individual resides.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Population of interest

      The population that is being sampled or studied.

      Source: Adapted from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Primary cause of death

      The principal cause of death.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Purpose

      The purpose of a vital statistics system is to produce statistics. 

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Records processing

      The act of arranging and describing the papers of an individual or family or the records of an organization.

      Source: Smithsonian Institution Archives

    • Standards

      A statistical standard provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for surveys and administrative sources collecting information on a particular topic. The use of statistical standards permits the repeated collection of statistics on a consistent basis.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Statistical purpose

      The description, evaluation, analysis, and inference for groups or individuals or other units, excluding interest in or identification of an individual person or economic unit.

      Source: National Academy of Science

    • Tabulation

      For statistical purposes, it is the process of placing classified data into a symmetric arrangement of collected data in rows and columns. For vital statistics purposes, the principles for tabulation have been defined by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD).

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division

    • Total fertility rate

      The number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing years bearing children according to a current schedule of age-specific fertility rates.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Underlying cause of death

      The disease or injury that initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death, or the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced the injury. The underlying cause of death is the one to be adopted as the cause for tabulation of mortality statistics.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Verbal autopsy

      Standards for ascertaining and attributing causes of death by a structured interview administered to caregivers or family members of households after a death occurs. Verbal autopsies are used to determine probable causes of death in areas where most deaths occur outside of health facilities and direct medical certification of the event is rare.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Vital event

      The occurrence of a live birth, death, fetal death, marriage, divorce, adoption, legitimation, recognition of parenthood, annulment of marriage, or legal separation.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Vital event record

      A legal document entered in the civil register that attests to the occurrence and characteristics of a vital event.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Vital event registration

      All sanctioned modes of enumerating individuals and reporting on vital events.

      Source: World Health Organization

    • Vital events data for statistical use

      Compilation of data on live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages, and divorces.

      Source: Adapted from United Nations Statistics Division and Eurostat

    • Vital statistical agency

      A specialized statistical agency that collects data directly from the civil registry and/or the national health information system for vital statistical purposes. It protects the confidentiality of responses collected under a confidentiality pledge and safeguards individual records against unauthorized access. The reporting (or collection) mechanisms and procedures will depend on national legislation, and the organization can be centralized or decentralized.

      Source: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine

    • Vital statistical record

      A document or form containing the items of information concerning an individual vital event or a number of vital events of the same type. The record is filled in at the time of registration to meet the needs of vital statistics compilation.

      Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • World standard population

      Used by the World Health Organization to calculate the age-standardized death rates.

      Source: World Health Organization